Surely not because technology has … Finding new ways to use existing data may also lessen the need for new collection efforts, which. Research into the relationship between household income and Medicare expenditures is an example: interestingly, the results of recent studies have been mixed. Moreover, the early results of experiments can be misleading, so that an adequate period of measurement is needed before effects can be confidently measured. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. In general, it is easier to mount evaluations with random assignment for experimental programs than for ongoing ones. A key characteristic of microdata is that they allow the marginal effects of key variables to be isolated, adjusting for other factors. “It is by means of wide and complete disclosure, and the skeptical efforts to replicate novel research findings, that scientific communities collectively build bodies of ‘reliable knowledge’” David (2001:2). If you are considering this software for your company, read on to learn the benefits of Microsoft Access… The user interface is intuitive; accelerating data information retrieval. Much of the data needed in a modern society comes from individuals. This information often comes from research based on data about individual people, households, and businesses and other organizations, collected by statistical agencies. For example, for the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), a census of federal and state administrative records was taken in 1983-1984 for four states to ascertain the validity of reporting for eight income maintenance programs (Marquis and Moore, 1990). Moreover, when aggregated, industry responses are weighted to represent the universe of firms at a given time. First, globalization allows countries to gain easier access to foreign knowledge. Longitudinal data contribute to high-quality research in at least two distinct ways. Much of the data needed in a modern society comes from individuals. Second, it enhances international competition—including as a result of the rise of emerging market firms—and this strengthens firms’ incentives to innovate and adopt foreign technologies. The National Institutes of Health have pursued policies to encourage data sharing for further analysis or replication studies in such areas as DNA sequencing, mapping informa-. Although replication is not a common scientific activity in the social sciences, philosophers and historians of science (e.g., Kuhn, 1962) agree that it is an important one. Similarly, the inclusion of contextual variables for cities and neighborhoods in microdata sets from national surveys would permit analyses of many policy-relevant issues. Another example that illustrates the benefits of data linkage is research to investigate the effects of community context on child development and socialization patterns and the effects of the availability of child care on parents’ work decisions (Gordon, 1999). The linkages that were performed (for example, of March CPS files with limited tax return information) were for internal agency use only (see National Research Council, 1991:66-68, 134-135). Cell phones give you an option to call for help if you need it. That relationship is well recognized by such agencies as the Census Bureau. Gordon’s application highlights the tradeoff between data precision and disclosure risks. The Competitive Advantages of Increased Access Providing your employees with the ability to access and process data is well worth the effort. It doesn’t require any complicated programming to use either, so the average computer user can take advantage of the information that can be gathered by this system. The benefits of access control that’s open and flexible. Information can change the way we see the world around us, our place in it, and how to adjust our lives in order to maximize the benefits available through our local resources. Both data sets have been able to shed light on the consequences for children of poverty, welfare receipt, and maternal employment. 94-455) led agencies to curtail the development of linked microdata for public use. What are the benefits of increased access to information? The relationship between data use and data quality is the essential foundation for the common interest of the statistical system and the wider research community in broad and responsible access to data. As noted in Chapter 2, most of these analyses are done by outside researchers rather than the agencies. Thirty-five years ago, interagency agreements permitted the linkage of some microdata from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the Social Security Administration (SSA), and the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey (CPS). This chapter discusses the role of data access in the scientific process, some of the specific ways access to research data have contributed to policy making, and the role of access in addressing the question of data quality. Or you may find you can manage with a smaller space altogether. 6. Storing and Protecting Information. There are many examples of the synergy that can be created from large numbers of researchers using the same datasets, which allows for corroboration of results and an accumulation of the benefits of knowledge. The availability and accessibility to information via the Internet has transformed the world into a global village. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Another benefit from linkages of survey data and administrative records is that they can improve data accuracy and scope by giving researchers access to information that individuals may not be able to recall or estimate accurately. The findings derived from such analyses undergo reexamination and reinvigoration when disseminated to the research community. The issue is at the forefront of public attention because of the changing demographic structure of the U.S. population and the budget pressures that face Medicare and Social Security. A third situation in which longitudinal data have timely policy relevance is when an ongoing longitudinal data program contains the information needed to address a current policy question. Some RDCs do currently offer access to geographic detail for selected surveys: for example, the National Center for Health Statistics includes a version of the microdata from the National Health Interview Survey with state and county identifiers at its RDC, and researchers can make special arrangements at the University of Michigan to use microdata from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with contextual neighborhood-level variables derived from census and other data. Presently, there are over 45 countries with access to information laws, with dozens of others on the verge. There are similar requirements at the U.S. National Institute of Justice and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Indeed, the creative turbulence that is a hallmark of the U.S. economy and a major contributor to its success is not apparent from macrolevel indicators. On a practical level, multiple users assure an increased return on the investment in expensive data collection projects. Analysts also need access to microdata in order to evaluate data quality, although some of this work, too, is also done by some agencies themselves. Researchers’ access to and use of the complex data collected by federal statistical agencies are essential to maintain and improve data quality (Abowd and Lane, 2004). Researcher access also makes it more likely that additional information about the statistical procedures that underlie the data, which might otherwise not be completely documented by agencies, is archived. Today, we have access to cutting-edge software that allows us to improve customer care service, turn big data into valuable insights, assess risks and increase business security. They are highly credible. Unfortunately, the Latin America and Caribbean region lags behind Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe and Data linkage also has the potential to reduce data collection costs—both direct costs and the cost of respondent burden. Effectively it substituted the presumption of openness in relation to official information for the presumption of secrecy which had existed up to then. Yet longer term effects of welfare reform, such as the extent to which former welfare recipients hold jobs for 2 or more years, are also of interest, and these kinds of assessments require longitudinal microdata (see National Research Council, 2001b). Health IT and Health Information Exchange Basics, Health Information Technology Advisory Committee (HITAC), Patient Identity and Patient Record Matching. In this case, and many others like it, use of aggregate data leads to biased estimates of relationships among variables because different firms in an industry respond to regulations in different ways. Yet administrative data contain their own errors—such as omissions and duplications—and they may use different concepts and cover different populations than surveys. The expansion of research on the human dimensions of environmental change is another. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Faulty techniques that might not otherwise have been acknowledged as such can be identified, and techniques that are effective can be promoted (we return to this important point below). There is growing appreciation for the point of view that the largest single improvement that the U.S. statistical system could make is to enhance the capabilities for analysis of statistical data by researchers inside and outside of government, which, in turn, would enable statistical agencies to better understand and improve their data (see Abowd and Lane, 2003). Perhaps most important, data sharing fosters an open research community and reinforces transparent scientific inquiry. Linking data on people and their environments—including biological and spatial data—is at the very core of this kind of research (Rindfuss, 2002). State and local governments, private foundations, and corporate and individual donations are also sources of social science research support at universities and private research organizations, including advocacy and public interest groups with a variety of policy preferences and perspectives. Researchers’ use of government data creates an effective feedback loop by revealing data quality and processing problems, as well as new data needs, which can spur statistical agencies to improve their operations and make their data more relevant. easier access to information; easier self-learning; Cons: Virtually no privacy; Cyber stalking; cyber crime is much easier to commit and get unpunished; Sociopaths have an easy way to give vent to their desires. Data linkage also facilitates research on infrequent events, such as rare diseases that affect only a small percentage of the population. This recognition is not new. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for example, have been instrumental in answering such questions as how Social Security benefits interact with pensions and savings in household efforts to finance retirement, how social security age eligibility requirements affect retirement rates and timing, and how changes in out-of-pocket medical expenses affect the use of federal programs.1. seeing access to information as the key to fighting corruption and enhancing the public’s capacity to exercise their rights. See also the report of an evaluation of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project, which did use random assignment and found substantial positive effects after an interval of some 35 years (Schweinhart, 2004). Data sharing promotes new research and allows for exploration of new questions without necessitating new data collection. The same datasets can be used for multiple purposes without substantial new investments: data gathered by researchers to answer one set of questions may be useful to others to answer another. Policy disputes related to interpretation are common, and, with wide dissemination of data to researchers, debate can be better informed. 11). As mentioned earlier, the Internet contains an endless supply of knowledge and information that allows you to learn about almost any topic or question you may have. Linkages such as those of HRS with Social Security records introduce detail to the data that are particularly constructive for modeling savings incentives, retirement decisions, and other dynamic economic behavior. Replication acts as an important disciplinary device for both academic researchers and government statisticians. Almost 20 years ago, a study by the Committee on National Statistics described the benefits of data sharing—some of which apply to data access more generally—and its essential role in science (National Research Council, 1985:9-16; see also Sieber, 1991). Date 9/30/2023, Jamoom E, Beatty P, Bercovitz A, Woodwell D, Palso K, Rechtsteiner E. “. Similarly, the HRS, having continued long enough for its initial cohort to reach retirement age, has become the data set of choice for many policy discussions related to retirement. Because linked data present challenges for minimizing the likelihood of re-identifying individuals, concerns about increasing nonresponse rates to government surveys and, subsequently, legislation (e.g., the 1976 Tax Reform Act, P.L. For example, decisions by individuals and firms that affect retirement behavior and benefits occur over long periods of time, requiring microdata sets that follow people through their working lives (National Research Council, 1997:70-71). For a full bibliography of research using the HRS data, see the website for the survey at the University of Michigan: hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/papers/sho_papers.php?hfyle=bib_all [May 2005]. One of the main benefits of electronic health records (EHRs) is increased access to information.1 To learn more about the benefits of increased access to information, see the following stories. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. Management Benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of computer networking show us that free-flowing information helps a society to grow. For example, the inclusion of geographic details—such as state, county, or city of residence—in microdata sets from large national probability sample surveys would permit modeling disparities in health, economic, and other outcomes that vary significantly across geographic areas. Such improvement will, in turn, increase the value of the investments in collecting, processing, and maintaining the data. Analysis of survey reports and administrative data for the Food Stamp Program determined that systematic differences in reporting biased the relationships derived from the SIPP sample and that error-prone respondents were more likely to drop out of the SIPP panels. A publicly available 1973 CPS-SSA-IRS exact-match file was the basis for a major dynamic microsimulation model of social welfare policies and retirement income and was also used to analyze the quality of income reporting in the March CPS. For example, by linking Wisconsin income tax records, Social Security earnings and benefits records, and probate records, Menchik and David (1983) determined that prospective Social Security benefits did not have a perceptible effect on lifetime wealth accumulation.